Hydroxytyrosol

General Info

Absorbtion
Hydroxytyrosol is a tiny fraction extracted from the outer membrane of the green olive. Absorption occurs in the stomach and from within the small intestine, and colon through diffusion.
Dietary Origins
The main source of hydroxytyrosol is the green olive. Hydroxytyrosol is recovered during the rinsing of the green olives, in the first stage of processing. The tiny fraction is carefully preserved through patented filtration processes. Since most of the hydroxtyrosol is removed in the earliest process only a small fraction of hydroxytyrosol can be found in extra virgin olive oil.

Overview
Hydroxytyrosol (3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol: DOPET) is a tiny fraction of the green olive found on the fruit’s outer membrane. It is the second most potent antioxidant known today, second only to gallic acid in oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values. It has been shown to pass into the cell’s nuclear envelope and activate the MnSOD gene. This activation has proven to enhance MnSOD activity 5-fold. MnSOD is required to protect the mitochondria from free radical damage thus protecting the cell from premature death. Hydroxytyrosol also passes the blood brain barrier where it also serves as a metabolite of the neurotransmitter dopamine.
Toxicities & Precautions

General
There are no known toxicities or precautions associated with hydroxytyrosol.
Health Conditions
Individuals sensitive to olive products should use caution.
Side Effects

Recommend doses are reported safe with no known side effects.
Functions in the Body

Heart Health
This antioxidant has been shown to aid in a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease by preventing low-density lipoprotein oxidation.
Neurodegenerative Disorders
A powerful antioxidant that is rapidly absorbed, and capable of passing the blood brain barrier in relative large amounts. Therefore, it may be very useful in the treatment of oxidative stress associated with neurodegenerative disease.
Oxidative damage
Believed to be the highest free radical scavenging antioxidant. Making it necessary to fight damage cause by free radicals.
Symptoms & Causes of Deficiency

Since hydroxytyrosol is not an essential nutrient there are no known deficiencies. However based on what is known about hydroxytyrosol it may be speculated that a deficiency may result in increased oxidative damage, negative tumor growth, increased risk for neurodegenerative disorders, and decline of overall cell health.