Molybdenum

General Info

Absorbtion
Molybdenum is easily and efficiently absorbed from the intestinal tract.
Dietary Origins
Excellent food sources of molybdenum include beans, leafy green vegetables, legumes, organ meats, and whole grains. Availability fluctuates widely because of variations in the molybdenum content of the soil. Vegetables grown in molybdenum rich soil can contain up to 500 times more molybdenum than those grown in molybdenum deficient soils.

Overview
Molybdenum is one of the scarcest substances on earth, yet small amounts of this mineral are found in nearly all organs of the human body. Molybdenum is a component of several important enzymes that participate in liver detoxification.
Toxicities & Precautions

General
Molybdenum toxicity is very rare since excess molybdenum is excreted in the urine.
Side Effects
Excess intake of molybdenum, 10-15mg per day, may cause gout like symptoms due to an increased production of uric acid.
Functions in the Body

Absorption
Molybdenum affects the absorption of copper, iron, and sulfate by competing for the same intestinal receptor sites.
Liver Detoxification
Works with the last step in the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. It is the liver detoxification pathway that converts sulfite, a salt of sulfurous acid, which is toxic to the nervous system, to sulfate, a nontoxic salt of sulfurous acid, for excretion.
Symptoms & Causes of Deficiency
Molybdenum deficiency in humans is uncommon because so little is needed. In a healthy state, body organs contain less than 0.1 parts per million. Molybdenum cofactor deficiency has been identified as a rare genetic condition that has caused previously unexplained seizures and developmental delays in newborn children. Molybdenum deficiency has often been shown in individuals who have been receiving prolonged intravenous feeding. The symptoms included coma, headache, mental disturbances, and tachycardia. Increased consumption of copper or sulfate can cause an excess excretion of molybdenum.